Today's NYT Magazine contains an article by Jeffrey Rosen on Supreme Court nominee John Roberts and the high-tech issues that he might face on the Court if he's confirmed. Among the technologies prominently featured, there is a section entitled "Brain Fingerprinting and the Future of Privacy Rights."
This portion of the article may be inadvertently misleading. The term brain fingerprinting is usually used to refer to a particular technology based on electroencephalography or "EEG" (see here). EEGs measure event related potentials that can be measured on a subject’s scalp a fraction of a second after the subject is exposed to certain stimuli. See, e.g., Paul Root Wolpe, Kenneth R. Foster, Daniel D. Langleben, Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Promises and Perils, 5 Am. J. of Bioethics 39, 41 (2005). The NYT article, however, seems to use the term to apply to functional magnetic resonance imaging "fMRI".
Also, I believe the case that is referenced in the article is Harrington v. State, 659 N.W.2d 509 (Iowa 2003), which relied on EEG rather than fMRI, contrary to the article. If I'm missing something here, please let me know in the comments.